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Learning English at TDA 

All you need to know about GCSE English at TDA

Since the summer of 2013, GCSE examinations have moved away from coursework and classwork based assessments, in favour of exams that are sat at the end of most two-year courses. January and March examinations have also been removed.  We want to provide you with information to help support your child at home.

The basics


All students will be entered for three English qualifications in 2017.  All are AQA qualifications.

  1. English Language GCSE (AQA Specification 8700)
  2. Spoken Language Endorsement (AQA Specification 8700)
  3. English Literature GCSE (AQA Specification 8702)

These three qualifications are designed to work together, giving students the opportunity to develop a wider range of knowledge and skills.


The new system does is currently untiered.  Questions on the papers get harder so students work their way through accessing the harder skills at the end of the paper.  This means the exams are written for all students to access.


English is a linear course which means the exams all come at the end of the course.  There are only re-sit opportunities in November and June during year 12 in English Language.


The new GCSE uses numbers 1-9 in order to identify levels of performance.  9 is considered the top level and 5 the higher pass mark (although in the next two years some schools and colleges will accept a grade 4).  If a student’s performance is below a 1 they will gain a U (ungraded).

English Language

This is an exam only qualification.  All exams are closed book, which means that students are not allowed to take in any pre prepared material with them.  All texts in these exams are unseen.

There are two exam papers:

Paper 1 – Explorations in creative reading and writing

This paper is based on fictional texts.  There is a reading and a writing section and students are required to be able to interpret and then create fictional texts.  The texts may include extracts from novels and short stories and will be chosen from the 20th or 21st Century.  The focus for this exam is being able to understand then create atmospheric descriptions and narrative perspectives.

How can you help your child prepare for this exam?

You need to get reading at home.  There are links at the end of this information you can use but essentially asking students to read as much as possible.  If this is more difficult, then enjoy talking about stories together, even from film scenes or sequences.  Ask your child questions about characters, their motives and authorial perspective. The more stories they encounter, the more imaginative they will be.

Paper 2 – Writers’ viewpoints and perspectives

This paper is based on non-fictional texts.  Again, there is a reading and a writing section.  This time students will get a 19th Century non-fiction text which they will be required to compare to a 20th or 21st century non-fiction text.  The kinds of texts they will encounter include, journalism, articles, reports, essays, travel writing, accounts, letters, diaries, autobiography and biographical passages or other appropriate non-fiction forms.  Section B (the writing section) will have a single task related to the theme of Section A (the reading section).

How can you help your child prepare for this exam?

As above, reading is the key to success.  Experiencing as many different texts as possible will allow students to engage with the style, tone and organisational features as well as understanding the meaning.  In school we are trying to give students opportunities to experience 19th century texts.  We would like you to help us build resilience in our young people.  They will encounter vocabulary or style that they are not used to in these older texts so they need to be able to ask questions, think of contexts for decoding language etc.  Get them to read articles, online or in newspapers, and talk about opinions, statements and personal response.

Spoken Language Endorsement

This is the only element of English which is non-examined.  The aim of the assessment is to allow students to demonstrate their speaking and listening skills by:

  • giving a presentation in a formal context
  • responding appropriately to questions and to feedback, asking questions themselves to elicit clarification
  • using spoken Standard English

    Students complete this element of the course at the end of Year 10.  They were allowed to choose their own topic.  This qualification provides them with a pass, merit or distinction grade.  This element needs to be passed in order to qualify in English Language.

    English Literature

    This is an exam only qualification.  All exams are closed book, which means that students are not allowed to take in any texts with them.  There will be some extracts printed in the exam papers but essentially students need to know their texts very well in order to meet the requirements of the exams.

    Paper 1: Shakespeare and the 19th century novel

    All students in have studied ‘Macbeth’ as their Shakespeare play.  In Section A, they will be asked a question on an extract from the play then they will have to link the extract to the play as a whole.  For example, ‘How is Macbeth presented as tyrannical in this extract…and then in the play as a whole’.  In Section B, students will have the same kind of question but for their 19th Century novel – either ‘Jekyll and Hyde’, ‘Christmas Carol’ or ‘Frankenstein’.

    Paper 2: Modern texts and poetry

    In Section A, students will have studied either ‘An Inspector Calls’, ‘Lord of the Flies’ or ‘Blood Brothers’.  This time they are given a choice of two questions from which they will answer one.  The questions will all be linked to characters or themes in the text. For example, ‘Explore how responsibility is presented in ‘An Inspector Calls’’.  In Section B, students will answer one comparative question on poems from their anthology.  They will have studied 15 poems from either the Power and Conflict, or Love and Relationships Cluster. In Section C they will have two unseen poems to write about.

    How can you help prepare your child at home?

    We have copies of all of the texts and revision guides in school.  There are also lots of online resources available, some of which I have detailed links of below.  Please ask your son/ daughter questions about their texts like:

  • What happens in the story
  • How does the plot develop?
  • Which characters are in the story?
  • How are they important to the story?
  • Which themes can you describe?
  • What is the author’s purpose in writing this story?

Ensure they are keeping up with homework as teachers will put revision activities on Show My Homework all of the time.  If you are concerned about your child not engaging with work at home then please speak to their teacher or tutor at school.

General revision for English

Efficient and well-structured revision is the most important preparation your child can do in order to ensure their success in GCSE examinations. It is important that you work with your child to assess their academic weaknesses and strengths in order to carry out these revision sessions effectively.

In order to organise productive revision sessions which cater to your child’s specific academic needs, it is helpful if you can ascertain your child’s preferred learning style. It has been scientifically proven that there are seven different learning styles, listed as follows;

  • Visual (spatial): the use of pictures or images to remember and recall information,
  • Aural (auditory-musical): the use of sound and music to remember and recall information,
  • Verbal (linguistic): the use of words, both in speech and writing, to understand and impart information,
  • Physical (kinaesthetic): the use of physical actions to assimilate information, for example- associating facts or figures with body or hand gestures,
  • Logical (mathematical): the preferred use of logic, reasoning and systems to assimilate information,
  • Social (interpersonal): working best in groups or with other people,
  • Solitary (intrapersonal): preferring to work alone and use self-study.

    As a result, it is important that you introduce your child to a diverse range of revision practices in order to ascertain which method is most effective for them at retaining knowledge. Popular revision techniques include; mind mapping; flash cards; making notes; drawing flow charts and diagrams. You could instruct your child on how to turn diagrams and pictures into words, and words into diagrams. Try as many different methods as possible to see which is most successful for your child’s learning style.

    After revising a topic, it is crucial that you test your child to see whether their learning style has worked. There are a plethora of valuable online functions, such as past paper archives and revision tools and resources, which you can access in order to test your child’s knowledge. By doing so you can help to consolidate their confidence in their own academic abilities.

    When creating a revision timetable, it is fundamental that you prioritise topics which your child finds difficult. By visiting the examination board websites for each GCSE subject, you and your child can access curricula, marking schemes and example answers from previous exam years, complete with the original examiner’s annotations and marks. By doing so, you can create an efficient revision timetable which actively targets problematic subjects and allocates time towards developing a comprehensive understanding of these topics.

    Online links you may find useful

Library Resources 

If you have a favourite genre when it comes to your reading you can click on the relevant link below to print a bookmark that will give you some ideas for further reading material.  

KS3 genre bookmarks

Dystopia Families Fantasy Friends
Funny Ghost/Supernatural Historical Horror
Myths Other lands Romance Sad
School Science fiction Sport War/Conflict

KS4 genre bookmarks

Adventure Animals Crime Dystopia
Families Fantasy Friends Funny
Ghost/Supernatural Historical Horror Myths
Other lands Romance Sad School
Science Fiction Sport War/Conflict  


 How to help your child prepare for exams

 Learning Science at TDA

In this section please find the PLCs (Personalised Learning Checklists) for Year 11 Science exams in 2017.


C1, C2, B1, B2, P1 and P2 are required for Double Science


C1, C2, C3, B1, B2, B3, P1, P2 and P3 are required for Triple Sciences



  B1 Personalised Learning Checklist  R  A  G
B1.1 B1.1.1  Describe the components of a balanced diet      
  B1.1.1  Describe the components of an unbalanced diet      
  B1.1.1 Explain metabolic rate and the effect of exercise       
  B1.1.1 State how inherited and environmental factors can affect health      
  B1.1.2 Describe what pathogens are and how they make us ill      
  B1.1.2 State how the body protects against disease      
  B1.1.2 Describe how white blood cells work      
  B1.1.2 Describe how antibodies are produced      
  B1.1.2 Describe the work of Semmelweiss      
  B1.1.2 Describe the different medicines that treat disease      
  B1.1.2 Recall how bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics      
  HT ONLY B1.1.2  Explain how over use of antibiotics leads to resistance      
  B1.1.2 Explain how vaccination works      
  B1.1.2 Describe how microbes can be grown safely in a lab      
B1.2 B1.2.1 State the role of the nervous system in living things      
  B1.2.1 Recall the receptors and the stimuli they detect (inc the eye)      
  B1.2.1 Describe the pathway of a reflex action (inc names of neurones)      
  B1.2.2 Explain how water, ions, temp & blood sugar are controlled      
  B1.2.2 Describe the role of hormones that control  menstrual cycle      
  B1.2.2 Explain how hormones can control fertility      
  B1.2.3 Recall that plants are sensitive to light, moisture and gravity      
  B1.2.3 Explain the role of auxin in plant growth      
  B1.2.3 Describe how plant hormones can be used in agriculture      
B1.3 B1.3.1 Describe the stages in developing and testing of medicines      
  B1.3.1 Describe the use of statins      
  B1.3.1 Describe the legacy and current use of Thalidomide      
  B1.3.1 Describe what drugs are and how they can be misused      
  B1.3.1 Describe the impact of legal and illegal drugs      
  B1.3.1 Describe some examples of performance enhancing drugs      
B1.4 B1.4.1 Describe the resources that plant and animals competed for      
  B1.4.1 Describe adaptations of plants and animals to extreme environments      
  B1.4 .1 Describe adaptation of plants and animals      
  B1.4.2 Describe environmental changes and distribution of organisms      
  B1.4.2 Describe some living and non living factors that can cause change      
  B1.4.2 Describe how living organisms can be used to detect changes      
  B1.4.2 Recall how changes can be measured using non-living indicators      
B1.5 B1.5.1 Recall how to interpret food chains and webs      
  B1.5.2 Recall how to draw and interpret pyramids of biomass      
  B1.5.3 Explain the energy losses in food chains      
B1.6 B1.6.1 Recall the process of decay and the best conditions      
  B1.6.2 Describe and explain the processes in the Carbon Cycle      
B1.7 B1.7.1 Define chromosome and gene and state where they are found      
  B1.7.1 Describe how genes are passed on from parents to offspring      
  B1.7.1 Distinguish between environment and inherited characteristics      
  B1.7.2 Describe sexual reproduction in animals and plants      
  B1.7.2 Describe asexual reproduction in plants      
  B1.7.2 Describe tissue culture, embryo transplants & adult cell cloning      
  B1.7.2 Describe and evaluate genetic engineering      
B1.8 B1.8.1 Describe Darwin's ideas on evolution      
  B1.8.1 Compare Lamarck's incorrect ideas of evolution to Darwin's      
  B1.8.1 Describe how to interpret evolutionary trees      
  B1.8.1 Explain the process of evolution by natural selection      



  B2 Personalised Learning Checklist  R   A   G 
B2.1 B2.1.1 Describe the structure and function of plant and animal cells      
  B2.1.1 Describe the structure and function of microbial cells      
  B2.1.2 Describe and explain diffusion      
B2.2 B2.2.1 Describe the heirarchy of plant and animal structure      
  B2.2.1 Describe the structure and function of animal tissues      
  B2.2.1 Describe the structure and function of the stomach and the digestive system      
  B2.2.2 Describe the structure and function of plant tissues and organs      
B2.3 B2.3.1 Recall the equation and describe the process of photosynthesis      
  B2.3.1 Describe and explain what limiting factors are      
  B2.3.1 Describe the use of the products of photosynthesis      
B2.4 B2.4.1 Describe the physical factors that may affect the distribution of organisms      
  B2.4.1 Explain how to use quadrats for sampling along a transect      
  B2.4.1 Explain how to use quadrats for random sampling      
B2.5 B2.5.1 Describe the structure and function of proteins      
  B2.5.1 Explain what biological catalysts are      
  B2.5.2 Explain how the shape of an enzyme controls its function      
  B2.5.2 Describe and explain the effect of PH and temperature on enzyme activity      
  B2.5.2 Recall the sites of production and the function of digestive enzymes      
  B2.5.2 Describe how enzymes work in the stomach      
  B2.5.2 Describe and explain the role of bile from the liver      
  B2.5.2 Describe the use of enymes in the home and industry      
B2.6 B2.6.1 Recall that aerobic respiration releases energy & occurs in mitochondria      
  B2.6.1 Recall and explain the respiration equation      
  B2.6.1 Describe the uses of the energy from respiration      
  B2.6.1 Describe and explain the physiological changes in exercise      
  B2.6.2 Recall and explain the anaerobic respiration equation      
  HT ONLY B2.6.2 Explain what oxygen dept is      
  B2.6.2 Explain what muscle fatigue is      
B2.7 B2.7.1 Describe and explain cell division by mitosis      
  HT ONLY B2.7.1 Explain the process of meiosis in forming gametes      
  B2.7.1 Describe the process of fertilisation      
  B2.7.1 Explain how cells differentiate and discuss the types of stem cells      
  B2.7.1 Describe how clones are formed in asexual reproduction      
  B2.7.2 Explain how sexual reproduction leads to variation      
  B2.7.2 Define the terms allele, chromosome, gene, DNA, recessive and dominant      
  B2.7.2 Interpret genetic diagrams and family tree diagrams      
  B2.7.2 Describe how gender is determined in humans      
  HT ONLY B2.7.2 Construct genetic cross diagrams to predict characteristics of offspring      
  HT ONLY B2.7.2 Use the terms homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype and genotype      
  HT ONLY B2.7.2 Use the terms homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype and genotype      
  B2.7.2 Recall that DNA is unique & that DNA fingerprinting can be used to ID a person      
  B2.7.3 Describe how genetic disorders like Polydactyly are inherited      
  B2.7.3 Describe how genetic disorders like Cystic Fibrosis are inherited      
  B2.7.3 Describe how embryos can be screened for genetic disorders      
B2.8 B2.8.1 Describe how fossils are formed      
  B2.8.1 Explain how fossils provide evidence of earlier life forms      
  B2.8.1 Explain the causes of extinction      
  B2.8.1 Describe what isolation is      
  HT ONLY B2.8.1 Explain new species (genetics, natural selection & speciation)      



  B3 Personalised Learning Checklist   R    A   G 
B3.1 B3.1.1 Describe and explain osmosis      
  B3.1.1F Describe the importance of  water/salt balance      
  B3.1.1 Evaluate data on use of sports drinks      
  B3.1.1 Explain active transport in terms of the concentration gradient      
  B3.1.1 Describe adaptations in animals & plants to maximise exchange      
  B3.1. Explain how the villi increase surface area to absorb products of digestion      
  B3.1.2 Recall the structures of the respiratory system and describe ventilation      
  B3.1.2 Evaluate the use of artificial ventilators      
  B3.1.3 Recall where exchange happens in plants      
  B3.1.3 Explain how the roots and leaves are adapted for exchange      
  B3.1.3 Describe the role of the stomata and guard cells      
  B3.1.3 Analyse and evaluate the conditions affecting transpiration      
B3.2 B3.2.1 Describe the function of the circulatory system and heart      
  B3.2.1  Recall and describe the structure and operation of the heart & major vessels      
  B3.2.1 Describe structure of arteries and veins      
  B3.2.1 f Describe the effects of narrowing arteries & evaluate the use of stents      
  B3.2.1 Describe the structure & function of capillaries      
  B3.2.2 Describe the structure and function of blood and plasma      
  B3.2.2 Describe the structure and function of red blood cells      
  B3.2.2 Describe the function of white blood cells      
  B3.2.2e Describe the function of platelets      
  B3.2.3 Describe the functions of xylem and phloem      
B3.3 B3.3.1 Recall waste products and method of removal      
  B3.3.1 Describe the importance of ion/water balance      
  B3.3.1 Describe the functioning of the kidney      
  B3.3.1 Describe methods of treating kidney failure      
  B3.3.1 Describe and explain rejection of a kidney transplant & how to prevent it      
  B3.3.1  Evaluate dialysis & kidney transplants      
  B3.3.2 Describe & explain the effect of sweating on water balance      
  B3.3.2b Describe how body temperature is monitored & controlled      
  HT ONLY B3.3.2 Describe physical responses to being too hot or too cold      
  B3.3.3 Explain the role of the pancreas & insulin in controlling blood sugar      
  HT ONLY B3.3.3 Explain the role of glucagon in controlling blood sugar      
  B3.3.3 Describe the causes and treatment of type 1 diabetes      
  B3.3.3  Evaluate the treatment of type 1 diabetes      
B3.4 B3.4.1 Describe the cause and effect of increased waste      
  B3.4.1 Describe the polluting effects of waste      
  B3.4.1 Describe the influence of human activity on waste production      
  B3.4.2 Describe the causes & impact of deforestation in tropical areas      
  B3.4.2 Describe the impact of the destruction of peat bogs      
  B3.4.3 Evaluate validity and reliability of environmental data      
  B3.4.3 Describe the causes and impact of global warming      
  B3.4.3 Describe the sequestering of carbon in water      
  B3.4.3 Describe how biogas is made & evaluate the use of biogas generators      
  B3.4.4 Explain how the efficiency of food production can be improved      
  B3.4.4 Describe methods to preserve fish stocks      
  B3.4.4d Describe how mycoprotein is manufactured      
  B3.4.4 Evaluate methods of food production      



  C1 Personalised Learning Checklist   R    A    G
 C1.1 C1.1.1 Describe what atoms and elements are and recognise symbols      
  C1.1.1 Recall the atomic structure and relative mass and charges      
  C1.1.1 Use the periodic table to calculate sub-atomic particle numbers      
  C1.1.1 Recall and draw the electron arrangement for the first 20 elements      
  C1.1.2 Describe the reactions of  group 1 elements with water and oxygen      
  C1.1.2 Explain the unreactive properties of the Nobel gases      
  C1.1.3 Describe that elements react by sharing or losing/gaining electrons      
  C1.1.3 Be able to write word equation for simple reactions      
  HT ONLY C1.1.3 Be able to write and balance symbol equations      
  C1.1.3 Interpret formulae to give numbers of atoms in a formulae      
  C.1.3 Explain the principle of conservation of mass      
C1.2 C1.2.1 Recall the composition of Calcium Carbonate      
  C1.2.1 Describe the thermal decomposition of carbonates      
  C1.2.1 Recall the reactions of calcium carbonate/other metal carbonates      
  C1.2.1 Evaluate the extraction and use of limestone      
C1.3 C1.3.1 Explain the relative reactivity of metals and how they are extracted      
  C1.3.1 Describe the extraction of iron in the blast furnace      
  C1.3.1 Describe the different ways to extract copper and their impact      
  C1.3.1 Describe the extraction of Aluminium and Titanium and why it is so expensive      
  C1.3.1 Explain the importance of metal recycling; energy, cost and environment      
  C1.3.2 Describe what alloys are, including those of iron, copper and gold      
  C1.3.3 Describe the properties and uses of transition metals especially copper      
  C1.3.3 Describe the usefulness of aluminium and titanium      
C1.4 C1.4.1 Describe crude oil as a mixture      
  C1.4.2 Describe what fractional distillation of hydrocarbons is      
  C1.4.2 Recall the general formula for alkanes and name and draw the first 4      
  C1.4.3 Describe hydrocarbons as fuels and recall the products of burning      
  C1.4.3 Discuss the environmental impact of fuels; global warming/dimming and acid rain      
  C1.4.3 Describe how sulphur can be removed from fuels      
  C1.4.3 Evaluate the production and use of biofuels      
C1.5 C1.5.1 Describe the cracking of hydrocarbons      
  C1.5.1 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons      
  C1.5.1 Recall general formula of alkenes and name and draw the first 2      
  C1.5.1 Describe the test for alkenes with Bromine water      
  C1.5.2 Describe the process of polymerisation      
  C1.5.2 Recall the uses and impact of polymers from crude oil      
  C1.5.2 Evaluate biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers      
  C1.5.3 Describe ethanol production methods and evaluate the environmental impact      
C1.6 C1.6.1 Describe how oils are extracted from plant, nuts and seeds      
  C1.6.1 Describe the uses of vegetable oils      
  C1.6.2 Describe the making and advantages of emulsions      
  HT ONLY C1.62 Describe the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of emulsifiers      
  C1.6.3 Recall that relative unsaturation of different vegetable      
  HT ONLY C1.6.3 Describe the hydrogenation of vegetable oils      
  C1.6.3 Evaluate the use, benefits, drawbacks of emulsifiers      
C1.7 C1.7.1 Describe the structure of the earth      
  Explain what tectonic plates are and how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed      
  C1.7.1 Explain why Wegener’s theory was not accepted for many years      
  C1.7.2 Recall the constituents of the atmosphere      
  C1.7.2 Describe and explain the evolution of the atmosphere      
  HT ONLT C1.7.2 Describe the Miller Urey experiment & primordial soup      
  C1.7.2 Explain where reservoirs of carbon are and the effect of combustion on CO2      
  HT ONLY C1.7.2 Describe the fractional distillation of air      



  C2 Personalised Learning Checklist   R     A    G 
C2.1 C2.1.1 Describe how ions are formed and represent them using square brackets      
  C2.1.1 Explain the process of ionic bonding      
  HT ONLY C2.1.1 Describe and explain the bonding between group 1 & 7 elements.      
  C2.1.1 Describe covalent bonding in simple molecules H 2, Cl2, HCl, H2O, NH3 & CH5      
  HT ONLY C2.1.1 Explain metallic bonding in terms of delocalised electrons      
C2.2 C2.2.1 Recall that all  simple molecules have low melting and boiling points      
  HT ONLY C2.2.1 Explain role of intermolecular forces when a substance melts/boils      
  C2.2.1 Explain why simple molecules do not conduct electricity      
  C2.2.2 Explain the structure and properties of ionic compounds (NaCl)      
  C2.2.3 Describe covalent bonding in giant structures diamond, graphite & Si02      
  HT ONLY C2.2.3 Explain the conductivity of graphite      
  HT ONLY C2.2.2 Describe the structure and use of fullerenes      
  C2.2.4 Describe the structure and properties of metals      
  HT ONLY C2.2.4 Explain how metals conduct heat      
  C2.2.4 Describe why alloys makes are harder than pure metals      
  C2.2.4 Describe what a shape memory alloy is and give an example      
  C2.2.5 Explain that the properties of polymer depend on what they are made of      
  C2.2.5 Compare structures & properties of thermosetting/thermosoftening polymers      
  C2.2.6 Describe what nanoscience is and  how this can lead to new developments      
C2.3 C2.3.1 Recall what atomic structure is and describe what isotopes are      
  HT ONLY C2.3.1 Describe how RAM (Ar) of an element is compare to the C12 isotope      
  C2.3.1 Calculate the RMM (MR) of different compounds & recall what a Mole is      
  C2.3.2 Explain why instrumental methods of chemical analysis are useful      
  C2.3.2 Describe how paper chromatography can be useful      
  C2.3.2 Describe how gas chromatography and mass spectrometry work      
  HT ONLY C2.3.2 Explain how the mass spec can give the RMM substances separated      
  C2.3.3 Explain how the % of an element in a compound can be calculated      
  HT ONLY C2.3.3 Calculate empirical formula      
  HT ONLY C2.3.3 Calculate masses of reactants from balanced equations      
  C2.3.3 Explain what percentage yield is and explain the limitations of calculating it      
  C2.3.3 Describe what reversible reactions are      
C2.4 C2.4.1 describe how to measure the rate of reaction using a simple equation      
  C2.4.1 Explain what collision theory is and how it affects reaction rate      
  C2.4.1 Explain how temp, pressure, conc., surface area, catalysts affect reaction rate      
C2.5 C2.5.1 Explain what exothermic reactions are and state some examples      
  C2.5.1 Explain what reversible reactions are and state some examples      
  C2.5.1 Explain what endothermic reactions are and state some examples      
C2.6 C2.6.1 Recall what the state symbols are in chemical equations      
  C2.6.1 Describe reacting acids with metals/insoluble bases/alkalis form soluble salts      
  C2.6.1 Describe how insoluble salts can be made  & how to remove unwanted ions      
  C2.6.2 Recall the  difference between alkalis and bases      
  C2.6.2 Describe how to use the names of reactants to name different salts produced      
  C2.6.2 Describe how ammonium salts are produced and why they are important      
  C2.6.2 Explain how H+ & OH- ions determine solution pH & describe pH scale is      
  C2.6.2 Explain how neutralisation reactions in terms of reacting  H+ & OH- ions       
C2.7 C2.7.1 Explain the principles of electrolysis      
  C2.7.1 Describe the events at the electrodes (half equations)      
  C2.7.1 Describe the electrolysis of aluminium      
  C2.7.1 Describe the electrolysis of sodium chloride      



  C3 Personalised Learning Checklist   R   A   G
C3.1 C3.1.1 Describe the work of Newlands and Mendeleev      
  C3.1.1b Describe how Mendeleev overcame problems with the early tables      
  C3.1.2 Describe how the modern Periodic table is set out      
  C3.1 Evaluate Newlands and Mendeleev work regarding the modern periodic table      
  C3.1.3 Describe properties, trends & reactions of Group 1 metals      
  C3.1.3 Compare the properties of the transition metals to Group 1 metals      
  C3.1.3 Describe the properties of the transition metals & state their use      
  C3.1.3 Describe Reactions/Trends of Group 7 elements & displacement reactions      
  HT ONLY C3.1.3 Explain trends in reactivity in groups re: loss & gain of electrons      
C3.2 C3.2.1 Describe behaviour of hard and soft water with soap      
  C3.2.1 Describe how hardness can be measured by titration with soap solution      
  C3.2.1 Distinguish between permanent and temporary hardness of water      
  HT ONLY C3.2.1 Explain how bicarbonate ions in temporary water thermally decompose      
  C3.2.1 Describe the negative effects of water hardness      
  C3.2.1 Describe the potential health benefits of water hardness      
  C3.2.1 Describe & evaluate methods of softening water      
  C3.2.2 Describe the desirable properties & drinking water it is made safe to drink      
  C3.2.2 Describe how water filters & ion exchangers works      
  C3.2.2 Compare & evaluate data from different water filters      
  C3.2.2 Explain why we add chlorine and fluoride to water      
  C3.2.2 Evaluate the arguments/data for/against the use of fluoride      
  C3.2.2 Evaluate the cost-benefit of distillation for purification      
C3.3 C3.3.1  Describe the use of calorimeters to calculate energy using Q = mc ΔT      
  C3.3.1 Describe experiments involving measuring temperature change      
  C3.3.1 Interpret energy level diagrams for exothermic & endothermic reactions      
  HT ONLY C3.3.1 Explain bond energy for exothermic & endothermic      
  C3.3.1 Describe effect of catalysts on activation energy      
  C3.3.1 Describe the use of hydrogen as a fuel      
  C3.3.1 Compare combusting hydrogen with hydrogen fuel cells from data/information      
C3.4 C3.4.1 Recall how to use the results of flame tests to identify metal ions      
  C3.4.1  Describe precipitation of metal hydroxides, halide ions & sulphate ions      
  C3.4.1 Describe the reaction of carbonates and dilute acid and the test for CO2      
  C3.4.1  Describe titration as a method to measure reacting volumes of acid/alkali      
  HT ONLY C3.4.1 Calculate chemical quantities in titrations from experiment      
C3.5 C3.5.1 Recall the source of the raw materials of the Haber process      
  C3.5.1b Describe & explain the Haber process and the conditions used      
  HT ONLY C3.5.1 Explain what is meant by equilibrium in reversible reactions      
  HT ONLY C3.5.1 Describe the effect of changing conditions on equilibrium and yield      
  HT ONLY C3.5.1 Evaluate the conditions used in terms of cost and impact on yield      
C3.6 C3.6.1 Recall alcohols contain-OH group & structure & names of first 3      
  C3.6.1 Describe the reactions of alcohols with air and sodium & state their uses      
  C3.6.1 Describe how ethanol is oxidised to form ethanoic acid      
  C3.6.2 Recall that carboxylic acids contain the -COOH group      
  C3.6.2 Describe the reactions with carbonates and alcohols      
  HT ONLY C3.6.2 Explain carboxylic acids as weak acids and difference from strong acids      
  C3.6.3 Recall that esters contain the -COO- group & the formation of ethyl ethanoate      
  C3.6.3 Describe the properties and uses of esters      



  P1 Personalised Learning Checklist   R   A   G
P1.1 P1.1.1 Recall what infrared radiation is and describe objects that absorb/emit it      
  P1.1.2 Use the kinetic theory to  explain the different states of matter      
  P1.1.3 Describe how energy is transferred by particles      
  P1.1.3 Describe the factors that affect the rate of heat transfer      
  P1.1.4 Describe what U values are and what they mean in terms of energy      
  P1.1.4 Describe what solar thermal heating is and how it works      
  P1.1.4 Use the equation  E =m x c x  Ө to calculate specific heat capacity      
  P1.2.1 Recall that energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred      
P1.2 P1.2.1 Draw and interpret Sankey diagrams to show useful and 'wasted' energy      
  P1.2.1 Use data in equations to calculate efficiency of a device      
  P1.3.1 Describe energy changes in everyday appliances      
P1.3 P1.3.1 Calculate energy transfer E=Pxt for mains electricity      
  P1.3.1 Calculate cost of mains electricity      
  P1.4.1 Describe how power stations generate steam from water to turn turbines      
P1.4 P1.4.1 Describe how wind and water can be used to generate electricity      
  P1.4.1 Describe how the sun and  geological activity can be used to generate electricity      
  P1.4.1 Describe how wind, water, the sun can be used to generate electricity      
  P1.4.1 Explain how using energy resources has different effects on the environment      
  P1.4.2 Describe the different parts of the National Grid and how it works      
  P1.4.2 Explain how transformers work and their use in the National Grid      
  P1.5.1 Compare longitudinal & transverse waves      
P1.5 P1.5.1 Describe the properties of EM waves & the EM spectrum      
  P1.5.1 Describe and explain reflection, refraction & diffraction of waves      
  P1.5.1 Describe and explain how to use the wave equation v = f  x λ      
  P1.5.1 Describe the uses of EM waves in communication      
  P1.5.2 Describe and construct ray diagrams for reflection in a plane mirror      
  P1.5.3 Describe the properties of sound waves and what pitch and echoes are      
  P1.5.4 Explain what the  Doppler effect and red-shift are      
  P1.5.4 Explain how red shift and CMBR provide evidence for the Big Bang      



  P2 Personalised Learning Checklist  R   A   G 
P2.1 P2.1.1 Describe how forces acting upon objects are equal and opposite      
  P2.1.1 Explain how resultant forces act upon objects to change state of rest or motion      
  P2.1.2 Use the F= m x a to work out force, mass & acceleration      
  P2.1.2 Construct  distance/time graphs and recall that the gradient represents speed      
  HT ONLY P2.1.2 Calculate the speed of an object from distance/time graphs      
  P2.1.2  Use the a= v - u / t to work out acceleration, velocity & time      
  P2.1.2 Construct  velocity/time graphs & recall that gradient represents acceleration      
  HT ONLY P2.1.2 Calculate object acceleration from gradient of velocity/time graph      
  HT ONLY P2.1.2 Calculate object distance travelled from velocity/time graph      
  P2.1.3 Describe how to determine braking and stopping distances      
  P2.1.3 Explain how reaction times is affected by driver & adverse road conditions      
  P2.1.4 Describe forces in fluids and the meaning of terminal velocity      
  P2.1.4 Draw/interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach terminal velocity      
  P2.1.4 Calculate the weight of an object using W = m x g      
  P2.1.5 Describe how forces can change object shape and use the equation F = k x e      
P2.2 P2.2.1 Calculate work done by using W = F x d      
  P2.2.1 Calculate power by using P = E / t      
  P2.2.1 Calculate gravitational potential energy by using Ep = m x g x h      
  P2.2.1 Calculate Kinetic energy by using Ek = ½ x m x v2      
  P2.2.2 Calculate momentum using p = m x v & describe conservation of momentum      
P2.3 P2.3.1 Describe and explain static electricity      
  P2.3.2 Recall what electrical current is and use I = Q / t to calculate current size      
  P2.3.2 Recall what potential difference is and use V = W / Q to work out work done      
  P2.3.2 Interpret and draw circuit diagrams and recall all of circuit symbols      
  P2.3.2 Describe what thermistors and LDRs are and state their uses      
  P2.3.2 Recognise current/potential difference graphs for resistor/filament bulb/diode      
  P2.3.2 Calculate current, potential difference & resistance using resistance V = I X R      
  P2.3.2 Describe current, potential difference and resistance in parallel circuits      
  P2.3.2 Describe current, potential difference and resistance in series circuits      
  P2.3.2 Describe the resistance in LEDs, LDRs and thermistors      
P2.4 P2.4.1 Describe and explain the difference between ac and mains electricity      
  HT ONLY P2.4.1 Determine the frequency of a supply from oscilloscope traces      
  P2.4.1 Describe differences between 2 and 3 core wire & explain how to wire a plug      
  P2.4.1 Explain how fuses, earth wires, circuit breakers & RCCBs make circuits safe      
  P2.4.2 Describe energy transfer in different bulbs and appliances      
  P2.4.2 Calculate power P = E / t. Show power, p.d. & current are related using P = I x V      
  HT ONLY P2.4.2 Show energy transferred, p.d. and charge are related using E = V x Q      
P2.5 P2.5.1 Recall atomic structure including relative mass, charges & describe isotopes      
  P2.5.1 Explain scattering experiments that replaced ‘plum pudding’ by nuclear model      
  P2.5.2 Describe  a, b, l , range in air, ionising & penetrative power, & deflections      
  P2.5.2 Describe origins of background radiation from natural & man-made sources      
  HT ONLY P2.5.2 Balance nuclear equations to show single alpha & beta decay      
  HT ONLY P2.5.2 & Explain deflections in magnetic & electrical fields      
  P2.5.2 Describe the uses & dangers of each type of radiation      
  P2.5.2 Describe what half-life is and be able to interpret half-life graphs      
  P2.6.1 Describe nuclear fission foruranium-235 and plutonium-239      
P2.6 P2.6.1 Explain  chain reactions and complete/sketch a diagram to show them      
  P2.6.2 Explain what nuclear fusion is and where this occurs in the universe      
  P2.6.2 Describe and explain the life cycle of  a stars (sun size & star much bigger)      



  P3 Personalised Learning Checklist  R   A   G 
P3.1 P3.1.1 Describe properties/uses of X-rays & precautions using them & CT scanners      
  P3.1.2 Describe the properties of & medical uses of ultra-sound      
  P3.1.2  Calculate the distance between interphases using s = v x t      
  P3.1.1/2 Compare the medical use of X-rays and ultra-sound      
  P3.1.3 Define refraction and relate to image formation by lenses      
  P3.1.3 Explain focal length and calculate refractive index (RI)      
  P3.1.3  Describe the features of an image using appropriate vocabulary      
  P3.1.3  Describe the image produced by converging and diverging lenses      
  P3.1.3  Construct and interpret ray diagrams to show image formation by lenses      
  P3.1.3 Calculate magnification using magnification= image height/object height      
  P3.1.4 Describe the structure and function of the parts of the eye      
  P3.1.4 Describe vision & how lenses correct long and short sightedness      
  P3.1.4 Compare the structure of the eye to that of cameras      
  P3.1.4 Calculate the power of a lens using P=1/f & describe determining factors      
  HT ONLY P3.1.4 Explain how lenses can be made thinner      
  P3.1.5 Explain total internal reflection and critical angle      
  HT ONLY P3.1.5 Calculate RI using RI=1/sin c      
  P3.1.5 Describe medical uses of uses of optical fibres & lasers      
P3.2 P3.2.1 Define centre of mass and describe how to find it for an irregular object      
  P3.2.1  Calculate using T=1/f for a pendulum      
  P3.2.1 Describe the factors affecting the period of a pendulum and applications      
  P3.2.2a+b Define and calculate moments using M = f x d      
  P3.2.2 Explain the effect of balanced/unbalanced moments on turning      
  HT ONLY P3.2.2 Rearrange M = f x d to find the force or distance      
  P3.2.2 Describe levers as force multipliers      
  HT ONLY P3.2.2 Explain why objects will topple and analyse/evaluate their design      
  P3.2.3 Describe how pressure exerted on a liquid is transmitted      
  P3.2.3 Describe the use of different cross sectional areas to multiply force      
  P3.2.3 Calculate the pressure in a hydraulic system using P = F/A      
  P3.2.4  Relate acceleration and direction of an object in circular motion      
  P3.2.4 Define centripetal force and relate this to the causative force      
  P3.2.4 Describe the effect of mass, speed and radius on centripetal force      
P3.3 P3.3.1 Describe the electromagnetic effect of current and applications      
  P3.31 Describe the motor effect and its use and apply in different situations      
  P3.3.1 Describe the factors affecting the size of the force in the motor effect      
  P3.3.1 Describe how to reverse direction of force & apply Fleming's left hand rule      
  P3.3.2 Describe electromagnetic induction      
  P3.3.2 Describe transformer structure & how step up/step down transformers work      
  P3.3.2  Use the equation relating the pd in the primary and secondary coils      
  P3.3.2 Calculate using VI (primary) = VI (secondary)      
  P3.3.2 Explain the use and benefits of switch mode transformers      



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 Revision and Examinations at TDA

 English at TDA